Maßnahmen, die einer etablierten Praxis oder Politik zustimmen, insbesondere solche Maßnahmen und Richtlinien, die Angehörige von traditionell unterdrückten oder benachteiligten Bevölkerungsgruppen Vorteile verschaffen, etwa in der Zulassung zum Studium an einer Hochschule (»positive Diskriminierung«).

the not doing of evil is an affirmative action, for he that doth refrain from evil actions, it is counted a good action in the sight of God, and of righteous men.
Lodowicke Muggleton: [Letter to Mr. Capp, upon his death-bed, dated from London, the 15th of March, 1683], in: John Reeve und Lodowicke Muggleton: A Volume of Spiritual Epistles. Being the Copies of Several Letters Written by the Two Last Prophets and Messengers of God, 1755, S. 526-529, hier S. 527.

He had said before, this body could not control the operations of Government; it might check affirmative action, but it could not of itself carry through any particular measure.
Mr. Webster: [Resolution on the Bank of the United States as a prompt and faithful public servant], in: The Register of Debates. Being a Report of the Speeches Delivered in the Two Houses of Congress Reported for the United States Telegraph 2 (1834), S. 783-786, hier S. 785.

If the right should be of any probable value, it would be the duty of the assignee to take affirmative action to sustain it, and make it available for the benefit of the creditors.
Anonymus: Recent American decisions in the Supreme Court of New York, King’s County, Sept. 1858. Charles Cleveland against William Boerum and Others, in: The American Law Register 7 (1859), S. 144-158, hier S. 147.

If upon the preponderance of the testimony taken the Board shall be of the opinion that any person named in the complaint has engaged in or is engaging in any such unfair labor practice, then the Board shall state its findings of fact and shall issue and cause to be served on such person an order requiring such person to cease and desist from such unfair labor practice, and to take such affirmative action including reinstatement of employees with or without backpay, as will effectuate the policies of this Act
National Labor Relations Act of 1935,

in the case of irrational private discrimination in employment, legislation can be drafted to meet a need for affirmative action.
Louis Lusky: Minority rights and the public interest, in: The Yale Law Journal 52 (1942), S. 1-41, hier S. 41.

It seems clear that neither existing legislation nor the common law present any obstacle to defamers of groups. Since there is little likelihood that the courts will change their present attitude affirmative action if warranted must come through new legislation.
Anonymus: Statutory prohibition of group defamation, in: Columbia Law Review 47 (1947), S. 595-613, hier S. 602.

In a paper presented at the Chicago Colloquium, Mr. Ernest Angell said: “The original, primary concern of the Rule with protection of fundamental rights against encroachment by the state has broadened to include rights or privileges based on affirmative action by the state to provide equal opportunity in public services such as education, public housing, etc.; and to protect against encroachments by other individuals or groups.”
Arthur L. Goodhart: The rule of law and absolute sovereignty, in: University of Pennsylvania Law Review 106 (1958), S. 943-963, hier S. 945.

Before Bakke, higher education did not have a clear framework for affirmative action, relying largely on an employment model for considering race/ethnicity in college admissions. With the 1978 decision, the Supreme Court provided specific guidelines for university admissions policies, both narrowing (through the finding that quotas were illegal) and expanding (by allowing race/ethnicity to be included as part of holistic review) how race/ethnicity could be considered.
Catherine L. Horn und Patricia Marin: Realizing the legacy of Bakke, in: Patricia Marin und Catherine L. Horn (Hg.): Realizing Bakke’s Legacy. Affirmative Action, Equal Opportunity, and Access to Higher Education, Stirling, Virg. 2008, S. 1-11, hier S. 6.



Nijole V. Benokraitis und Joe R. Feagin: Affirmative Action and Equal Opportunity. Action, Inaction, Reaction, New York 1978.

James A. Beckman: Affirmative Action. An Encyclopedia, Westport, Conn. 2004.

Patricia Marin und Catherine L. Horn (Hg.): Realizing Bakke’s Legacy. Affirmative Action, Equal Opportunity, and Access to Higher Education, Stirling, Virg. 2008.

William M. Leiter: Affirmative Action in Antidiscrimination Law and Policy. An Overview and Synthesis, Albany 2002, 2. Aufl. 2011.

Moises F. Salinas: The Politics of Stereotype. Pychology and Affirmative Action, Westport, Conn. 2003.

Terry H. Anderson: The Pursuit of Fairness. A History of Affirmative Action, Oxford 2004.

N Edmund Terence Gomez: Affirmative Action, Ethnicity, and Conflict, London 2013.

James A. Beckman: Controversies in Affirmative Action, 3 Bde., Santa Barbara 2014.

Sigal Alon: Race, Class, and Affirmative Action, New York 2015.

Michele S. Moses: Living with Moral Ddisagreement. The Enduring Controversy about Affirmative Action, Chicago 2016.

M. Kelly Carr: The Rhetorical Invention of Diversity. Supreme Court Opinions, Public Argument, and Affirmative Action, East Lansing 2018.

Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen: Making Sense of Affirmative Action, New York 2020.