Das ist ia so klar, […] das inn dem stück daher wir Christen heissen, gar kein ungleicheit noch forzug der personen ist, sondern einer wie der ander, man, weib, jung, alt, gelert, ungelert, edel, unedel, fürst und bawr, herr und knecht, grosser odder kleiner heilige. Wie nun einerley Christus und glaube ist, Gleich wie die Sonn am Himmel einerley ist gegen jderman, leuchtet einem bawrn so wol als einem König, einen blinden so wol als einem scharffsehenden, der saw auff der gassen so wol als der aller schonesten frawen auff erden und scheinet so bald auff einen dorn als auff eine rosen, auff einen kot als auff ein purpur.
Martin Luther: Wochenpredigten über Matth. 5-7 (1530), in: Weimarer Ausgabe, Bd. 32, Weimar 1906, S. 536.

we declare: […] That in all Laws made, or to be made, every person may be bound alike, and that no Tenure, Estate, Charter, Degree, Birth, or Place do confer any exemption from the ordinary Course of Legall proceedings, whereunto others are subjected.
An Agreement of the People for a Firme and Present Peace, upon Grounds of Common-Right and Freedome, London 1647, S. 5.

the universal interests of humanity, a philanthropy rising impartially above all distinctions of class, sex, creed, race or nationality […]
Any person engaged in Industrial Pursuits, not under sixteen years of age, of good character, and having no interests in conflict with the purposes of the Order, shall be eligible to membership; and no distinction as regards rights and privileges of membership shall be made by this Council, or by any State or Subordinate Council, on account of sex, creed, race, or nationality.
Constitution of the Order of Sovereigns of Industry, Worcester 1874, S. 9; 22 (Art. XII, 1).

The university of Pennsylvania has, within a few years past, by the expenditure of more than a million of dollars, erected buildings for its department of arts, its school of science, its medical and dental school, and its hospital, whose doors are open to all patients, without distinction of race, sex, creed, or colour.
C.S.P: Brief mention, in: The Penn Monthly 13 (1882), S. 146-148, hier S. 146.

Membership in the Society is open to persons without distinction of sex, race, creed or caste
The Theosophical Society. Objects, Revised Rules, & Bye-Laws of 1886, in: Tukaram Tatya: A Guide to Theosophy, Bombay 1887, S. 56.

The fund applies to the three classes of institutions named [to provide retiring pensions for the teachers of universities, colleges, and technical schools in our country, Canada, and Newfoundland], without regard to race, sex, creed, or color.
Andrew Carnegie: Letter, in: The Journal of Education 61 (1905), S. 490-491, hier S. 490.

it is the policy of the United States to encourage full participation in the national defense program by all citizens of the United States, regardless of race, creed, color, or national origin, in the firm belief that the democratic way of life within the Nation can be defended successfully only with the help and support of all groups within its borders. […]
There is established in the Office of Production Management a Committee on Fair Employment Practice
Franklin D. Roosevelt: Executive Order 8802 (Fair Employment Act), 25. Juni 1941 (http://docs.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/od8802t.html).

To provide educational opportunities on an accredited collegiate level, for all qualifying persons irrespective of race, sex, creed, or economic status.
Hillsdale College Bulletin ‒ Centennial Year 1944-1945, Annual Catalogue 39 (1944), S. 2.

Article 1. The Purposes of the United Nations are: […] To achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion
Charta der Vereinten Nationen, https://www.un.org/en/sections/un-charter/chapter-i/index.html

The following are the most important pretexts for prejudice: race, colour, cultural circle, language, religion, national circle, social class (including caste, origin, educational and economic status, etc.) political or other opinion, and sex.
United Nations: The Main Types and Causes of Discrimination. Commission on Human Rights. Memorandum submitted by the Secretary-General, Lake Success, N.Y. 1949, S. 17.

Niemand darf wegen seines Geschlechtes, seiner Abstammung, seiner Rasse, seiner Sprache, seiner Heimat und Herkunft, seines Glaubens, seiner religiösen oder politischen Anschauungen benachteiligt oder bevorzugt werden. [Ergänzung vom 27. Okt. 1994: Niemand darf wegen seiner Behinderung benachteiligt werden.]
Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Art. 3 (3), in: Bundesgesetzblatt vom 23. Mai 1949.

nondiscrimination as to sex, race, religion, et cetera
Anonymus: News about nursing, in: The American Journal of Nursing 49 (1949), S. 400.

La jouissance des droits et libertés reconnus dans la présente Convention doit être assurée, sans distinction aucune, fondée notamment sur le sexe, la race, la couleur, la langue, la religion, les opinions politiques ou toutes autres opinions, l’origine nationale ou sociale, l’appartenance à une minorité nationale, la fortune, la naissance ou toute autre situation.
Convention européenne de sauvegarde des droits de l’homme et des libertés fondamentales du 4 novembre 1950, article 14.

Artikel 14. Der Genuß der in dieser Konvention festgelegten Rechte und Freiheiten muß ohne Unterschied des Geschlechts, der Rasse, Hautfarbe, Sprache, Religion, politischen oder sonstigen Anschauung, nationaler oder sozialer Herkunft, Zugehörigkeit zu einer nationalen Minderheit, des Vermögens, der Geburt oder des sonstigen Status gewährleistet werden.
Konvention zum Schutze der Menschenrechte und Grundfreiheiten, in: Deutschland: Bundesgesetzblatt 1952, II, S. 685-700, hier S. 690f.

Dans le cas où un danger public exceptionnel menace l’existence de la nation et est proclamé par un acte officiel, les États parties au présent Pacte peuvent prendre, dans la stricte mesure où la situation l’exige, des mesures dérogeant aux obligations prévues dans le présent Pacte, sous réserve que ces mesures ne soient pas incompatibles avec les autres obligations que leur impose le droit international et qu’elles n’entraînent pas une discrimination fondée uniquement sur la race, la couleur, le sexe, la langue, la religion ou l’origine sociale.
Pacte des Nations unies relatif aux droits civils et politiques 16 décembre 1966, article 4.

As in the case of equal pay, all jurisdictions in Canada have also enacted human rights legislation. All the statutes prohibit discrimination on the basis of race, national origin, color, religion or creed, sex, marital status, and age
Harish C. Jain: Canadian legal approaches to sex equality in the workplace, in: Monthly Labor Review 105 (1982), S. 38-42, hier S. 39.

Equal opportunity to all regardless of sex, race, religion, ancestry, disability, age or sexual orientation
Tradeswomen. A Quarterly Magazine for Women in Blue-Collar Work 2 (3) (Spring 1983), S. 45; vgl. 8(1) (Winter 1989), S. 37.

Artikel 6 a. Unbeschadet der sonstigen Bestimmungen dieses Vertrags kann der Rat im Rahmen der durch den Vertrag auf die Gemeinschaft übertragenen Zuständigkeiten auf Vorschlag der Kommission und nach Anhörung des Europäischen Parlaments einstimmig geeignete Vorkehrungen treffen, um Diskriminierungen aus Gründen des Geschlechts, der Rasse, der ethnischen Herkunft, der Religion oder der Weltanschauung, einer Behinderung, des Alters oder der sexuellen Ausrichtung zu bekämpfen.
Vertrag von Amsterdam zur Änderung des Vertrags über die Europäische Union, der Verträge zur Gründung der Europäischen Gemeinschaften sowie einiger damit zusammenhängender Rechtsakte OJ C 340, vom 10.11.1997.

Est interdite, toute discrimination fondée notamment sur le sexe, la race, la couleur, les origines ethniques ou sociales, les caractéristiques génétiques, la langue, la religion ou les convictions, les opinions politiques ou toute autre opinion, l’appartenance à une minorité nationale, la fortune, la naissance, un handicap, l’âge ou l’orientation sexuelle.
La Charte des droits fondamentaux de l’Union européenne du 18 décembre 2000, chap. III, article 21, point 1.

Allgemeines Gleichbehandlungsgesetz (AGG) § 1 Ziel des Gesetzes. Ziel des Gesetzes ist, Benachteiligungen aus Gründen der Rasse oder wegen der ethnischen Herkunft, des Geschlechts, der Religion oder Weltanschauung, einer Behinderung, des Alters oder der sexuellen Identität zu verhindern oder zu beseitigen.
Gesetz zur Umsetzung europäischer Richtlinien zur Verwirklichung des Grundsatzes der Gleichbehandlung, in: Bundesgesetzblatt 2006, I, 39 (vom 17.
Aug. 2006), S. 1897-1910, hier S. 1897.

Three Unsolved Problems
1. Impairment and disability. […] The classical theorists all assumed that their contracting agents were men who were roughly equal in capacity, and capable of productive economic activity. They thus omitted from the bargaining situation women (understood as non-“productive”), children, and elderly people—although the parties might represent their interests. These omissions, already striking in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, have to some extent been rectified in contemporary contract doctrines, though the idea that the family is a private sphere immune from law and contract has not always received the thoroughgoing criticism it deserves. No social contract doctrine, however, includes people with severe and atypical physical and mental impairments in the group of those by whom basic political principles are chosen. Of course in most modern societies, until recently, such people were simply not included in society. They were excluded and stigmatized; there was no political movement to include them. […]
2. Nationality. A second area of difficulty in the social-contract tradition concerns the role of nationality or place of birth in influencing people’s basic life chances. In this increasingly interdependent world, we need to consider issues of justice raised by inequalities between rich and poor nations that affect the life chances of their citizens. The contract model is typically used to construct a single society, which is imagined as self-sufficient and not interdependent with any other society. Both Kant and Rawls do recognize the importance of confronting issues of justice between nations. But the logic of their theories leads them to pose this question at a second stage, and derivatively. […]
3. Species membership. […] Animals are not simply part of the furniture of the world; they are active beings trying to live their lives; and we often stand in their way. That looks like a problem of justice, not simply an occasion for charity. So it is another large shortcoming in a theory if it cannot even frame the relation between humans and animals as the sort of relation it seems to be, involving the problems it clearly seems to involve.
The three issues of justice I have mentioned are all different. Each requires separate treatment, and each puts pressure on the contract doctrine in different ways. All, however, have one important feature in common: they involve a serious asymmetry of power and capacity between the creatures whose entitlements will be my focus and some dominant group. That asymmetry will play a role in explaining, in each case, why the traditional contract approach cannot deal with the issues well. All three of these issues are now widely recognized as important, although formerly they were not. Thus shortcomings in the social contract tradition that used to seem minor now begin to look major. They prompt us to look beyond the social contract, to see what other ways there might be of articulating the grounds of a truly global justice.
Martha Nussbaum: Frontiers of Justice: Disability, Nationality, Species Membership, Cambridge, Mass. 2007, S. 14f.; 18; 21f.

Kein Mensch darf im Rahmen öffentlich-rechtlichen Handelns auf Grund [1] des Geschlechts, [2] der ethnischen Herkunft, [3] einer rassistischen und antisemitischen Zuschreibung, [4] der Religion und Weltanschauung, [5] einer Behinderung, [6] einer chronischen Erkrankung, [7] des Lebensalters, [8] der Sprache, [9] der sexuellen und geschlechtlichen Identität sowie [10] des sozialen Status diskriminiert werden.
Landesantidiskriminierungsgesetz [des Landes Berlin], in: Gesetz- und Verordnungsblatt für Berlin 76 (Nr. 29 vom 20. Juni 2020), S. 532-543, hier S. 532.



Charles King: Gods of the Upper Air. How a Circle of Renegade Anthropologists Reinvented Race, Sex, and Gender in the Twentieth Century (2019), dt. Schule der Rebellen. Wie ein Kreis verwegener Anthropologen Race, Sex und Gender erfand, München 2020.