the mechanism must, in the surviving forms, have changed from heterosexual to an ambisexual orientation, causing attraction towards all individuals of the same species irrespective of their sex. The sexual complex itself may in other words be supposed to have changed into an instinct for indiscriminate schooling behavior. […]
the form of actual schooling behavior is largely dependent upon and explainable by the promoting or suppressing influence from the sexual orientation of the individual, according to the varying degrees of externally perceptible sex differentiation.
Albert Eide Parr: Sex dimorphism and schooling behavior among fishes, in: The American Naturalist 65 (1931), S. 173-180, hier S. 176; 180.

That a homosexual is not a “pervert” but the victim of a constitutional or psychological development which gives him a sexual orientation that is different from the established social pattern, has been a matter of scientific and clinical knowledge for many years, but such knowledge has not affected the popular view which is guided more by unreasoning emotions than by rational thinking. From a scientific point of view, there is very little which differentiates a homosexual from any other individual except his peculiar sexual orientation. He may be a wise and cultivated gentleman or he may be a fool, just as any heterosexual may be either one.
Benjamin Karpman: Considerations bearing on the problems of sexual offenses, in: The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science 43 (1952), S. 13-28, hier S. 21f.



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Sven Lewandowski: Sexuelle Vielfalt und die UnOrdnung der Geschlechter. Beiträge zur Soziologie der Sexualität, Bielefeld 2015.

Jim Downs: Stand by Me. The Forgotten History of Gay Liberation, New York 2016.

Abbie E. Goldberg: The SAGE Encyclopedia of LGBTQ Studies, Los Angeles 2016.

Arn Sauer: LSBTIQ-Lexikon, in: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, bpb.de, März 2017.

Julia Koll: Diverse Identität. Interdisziplinäre Annäherungen an das Phänomen Intersexualität, Hannover 2018.

Regenbogenportal: LSBT, LSBTI, LSBTIQ, LSBTI*, Bundesministerium für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend, Mai 2019.

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